The Swedes and Polish win the Russians under Võnnu

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21. October 1578

By the year 1578 the Russians had the whole of continental Estonia except Tallinn and also Latvia up to Riga. But major success also required big sacrifices and the Russians had no more resources for the further offensive war. The latter was taken advantage of by the Swedes and Polish who concluded the mutual union.

This was facilitated by the fact that the new Polish king Stefan Bahory and the Swedish king Johan III were both married to the sisters of Sigismund II August and were thus each others' brothers-in-laws.

On 21 October 1581 the common forces of Sweden and Poland won the Russian army and thereafter most of the Latvian area fell back into the hands of Poland, Karksi also in addition to it. The further cooperation of Sweden-Poland was spoilt by that the Polish took all booty. Therefore their "anti-Russian" fight hereinafter continued separately.

Mati Laur. Eesti ajalugu varasel uusajal 1550-1800. Tallinn: Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, 1999.

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